The Ubiquitous Field Observation and the Tides

The Ubiquitous Field Observation (UFO) is a field-like repulsive force that exists between heavenly bodies such as stars, planets, and satellites. This force is electrostatic in nature and is the result of these bodies containing more electrons than protons. To understand the nature of the UFO force we must go back to the time of the Grandfire. At this time the 2256 neutrons formed during the Great Chain Bifurcation began to decay into great numbers of protons and electrons. Most of the energy produced by this decay was contained in the motion of electrons, which moved at considerably higher velocities than the protons. This is because the proton and electron produced by each decay must possess nearly equal amounts of momentum. (There are also small amounts of energy and momentum carried away by the neutrino, which is also produced in neutron decay but these quantities are small compared to those of the electron and proton.) In order to divide momentum between the electron and proton, the lighter particle must carry away the majority of the energy. For example, if the proton was 100 times more massive than the electron, then the electron would move at a velocity 100 times greater than the proton and possess 100 times as much energy.

As time passed, the great cloud of protons and electrons produced in the Grandfire began to cool and individual protons and electrons began to couple together to form hydrogen atoms. Through the dynamics of cloud forming forces, these atoms, together with the free protons and electrons, began to coalesce into individual clouds of matter that would eventually become the stars and galaxies.

Because of their much higher velocities, electrons were able to travel much farther than protons to become part of these clouds. Also because of their much smaller masses electrons were much more likely to be pulled into, and captured by, these clouds than protons. As a result, most of the electrons in the universe became confined to the newly formed stars and galaxies, leaving a significant number of free protons in the empty reaches of space between the stars and galaxies. One piece of observational evidence that would tend to validate this idea is the fact that protons outnumber electrons more than fifty to one in the cosmic ray flux that enters Earth’s atmosphere from all directions of deep space. One explanation of the lack of electrons in deep space is that most of these particles have become attached to the stars, planets, and comets. Of the particles remaining in deep space, the vast majority are protons.

If we accept this idea that heavenly bodies contain significantly more electrons than protons, then it follows that each of these bodies has a substantial, negative, electrostatic charge.

These electrostatic charges would be manifest as repulsive forces between the earth, moon, and sun. The magnitude of these forces would be very small when compared to the attractive force attributed to gravitation and would probably have only minor effects on celestial mechanics. However, these electrostatic forces can explain the tidal forces between the earth, moon, and sun with a far higher degree of accuracy than can any gravitational theories.

Free electrons on and near the surfaces of the earth and moon are able to add larger and larger links to their charge chains until their largest links become captured by the bodies of the moon and earth, in much the same way that neutrons become captured in the coils of a meson.

This diagram represents the largest link in the charge chain of just one of the countless free electrons, which carry the tidal force between Earth and the moon.
The tidal force exerted between the earth and moon by these electrons is far weaker than the force proposed by gravitational theories. Whereas gravitational theories need to accelerate the whole mass of the earth to account for the tides, the electrostatic explanation of the tides, proposed by Absolute Motion Theory, only proposes enough force to move a thin layer of water at the earth’s surface.

It has long been known that the tides are influenced by the moon, and, to a lesser degree, the sun. There is a cause-and-effect relationship between the tides and the motions of these two bodies so apparent that even the casual observer can detect it.

When Newton conducted a study of the tides, it was quite apparent to him that they were caused by a force that was exerted between the earth, moon, and sun. He believed that his newly developed idea of Universal Gravitation was the source of the tide-generating forces. When he calculated the effects that the gravitation of the moon and sun would have on the earth’s oceans, he found that gravitation did, indeed, supply a qualitative explanation of the tides. However, in modern times, when very accurate instruments made possible the precise, quantitative evaluation of the tides, gravitational theories failed to account for the results.

For Gravitation to explain the tides, sufficient force must be achieved, not from the pull of the moon and sun on the earth’s oceans, but from the difference in pull between the near side of the earth and the far side. This relationship can be seen in the formula used in gravitational theories to represent tide-generating forces:

Using this formula we are forced to conclude that the tide-generating forces are inversely proportional to the cube of the distance between the bodies involved. This formula is completely theoretical and is useless in predicting tidal magnitude for any given place on earth, due to the fact that the continents and the irregularities of the ocean floor severely affect the movements of the earth’s water. However, even though the above formula cannot be expected to predict the total magnitude of the tides for a given spot on earth, it should be very accurate in predicting the difference in tidal magnitude that occurs between the moon’s apogee and perigee, and between the earth’s aphelion and perihelion.

The moon is 12.4 percent farther away from the earth at apogee than it is at perigee, and the earth is 3.3 percent farther away from the sun at aphelion than at perihelion. According to the gravitational theories, which demand that tidal forces vary according to the cube of the distance between the bodies involved, the lunar tides should be 29.7 percent greater at perigee than at apogee, and the solar tides should be 9.25 percent greater at perihelion than at aphelion.

This, however, is not the case. Careful measurements of lunar tides reveal that they vary only about 20 percent. This amount is very close to what would be expected if the tide-generating forces varied with the square of the distance between the earth and the moon. If tidal force was 1.0 at apogee then it would be (1.124)2=1.263 at perigee. This is an increase in magnitude of 20.8 percent, not the 29.7 percent predicted by gravitational theories.

The oceans are tiny compared to the bulk of the earth, and the tidal forces move only a very small portion of these waters from one place to another. Most of the energy expended by tidal forces is released at the earth’s surface as would be characteristic of an electrostatic force.
The tide-generating force (F), divided by Earth’s gravity (G), is equal to twice the mass of the moon in terms of Earth’s mass (M), divided by the distance to the moon in terms of Earth’s radius (R), cubed.
As far as solar tides are concerned, I have been unable to find any data relating to the difference in their magnitude between perihelion and aphelion. However, by making an extrapolation from the observational data of the lunar tides, one would expect the solar tides to vary by about 6.3 percent if their magnitude varied with the square of the distance between the earth and the sun.

Another discrepancy between theory and observation, which cannot be explained by the gravitational theories, is the fact that tide-generating forces appear to be blocked by matter. Both General Relativity and Universal Gravitation are based on the idea that gravitational forces cannot in any way be blocked by matter or any field. Unlike other forces such as magnetism and electrostatics, gravitational forces cannot be altered in any way.

However, when tide-generating forces are measured deep inside mine shafts, it is found that they fall off quite rapidly the deeper within the earth that they are measured. This finding is in complete disagreement with the very tenets of gravitational theories, which state that gravitational forces cannot in any way be blocked by the presence of matter. However if the tidal forces are a form of electrostatic repulsion then we would expect them to be strongest at the earth's surface and weakest when measured deep within the earth.

While there is no observational data that supports the gravitational theories of the tides, there is observational data which virtually confirms the existence of strong electrostatic forces between the earth, moon, and sun. It is the presence of gigantic lunar and solar tides in the ionosphere. These tides have a magnitude of over forty miles in height, and their cause is not even hinted at by the gravitational theories.

The electrostatic charge of the earth is concentrated in the ionosphere, which is a layer of highly charged particles surrounding the earth. The existence of this tide virtually disproves the gravitational theories of the tides, since there is no way that gravitation could even begin to cause tides of this magnitude in the ionosphere. If it could, there would also be large tides in the uncharged, yet far more massive, atmosphere and, demonstrably, there are not.


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