The Myth of Gravitational Attraction

The primary obstacle in unifying the forces of gravity with the force exerted in the electrostatic interaction is the opposite ways in which these forces effect the attraction of one body of matter to another.

The electrostatic attraction that occurs between a proton and an electron is a monogamous event. Each electron couples with a single proton. A group of electrons does not attract a group of protons as one body attracting another. Rather, all attraction that occurs is from the coupling of individual electrons in one group with individual protons in the other. Each particle is only capable of interacting with one other particle at a time. These individual couplings are often short-lived, and each particle might make many different couplings over a short period of time.

In the “attraction” that occurs between protons and electrons due to gravity, the situation is completely opposite. The gravitational attraction of a single proton does not just attract one electron, but rather all electrons and all other protons in the entire universe. This gravitational attraction between all particles of matter is continuous and unbroken. The presence and distribution of other matter has absolutely no effect on the gravitational interaction between any two particles.

The two drawings shown here illustrate the difference in character between the electrostatic attraction and the gravitational attraction. In the first drawing, the lines represent the coupling forces and attraction between a group of protons and electrons at a particular point in time. Each pair of coupled particles has no attraction to other particles. In the second drawing, the gravitational couplings are shown for the same group of electrons and protons. The lines represent the attraction between each particle and the other particles in the group; not shown are the lines that connect each particle with every other particle in the universe.

This pervasive, unbroken and eternal gravitational link between all particles of matter generates many difficult questions. When a proton/antiproton pair are created from the kinetic energy of a cosmic ray event, how fast do the lines of force move from away from these particles to link up gravitationally with the other particles in the universe? Is a newly-formed proton in any way different from a ten billion year-old proton that has had time to link up gravitationally with all other particles in the universe? What happens to the lines of force, which travel out into space from the antiproton, when the antiproton encounters a proton and is annihilated? Does its phantom attractions continue on their way through space after the antiproton has ceased to exist? If the force of gravitational attraction moves at the speed of light, then could gravitational attractions that are no longer connected to an existing body of mass move throughout the universe? If a very old proton is annihilated with an antiproton, how long does it take for atoms in the Andromeda galaxy to feel the loss of attraction from this proton?

Both gravitational attraction, proposed by Newton, and “curved” space, used by Einstein to explain this attraction, are such totally preposterous concepts that it is difficult to understand how they were able to gain any kind of acceptance in the scientific community.

Electrostatic Attraction

Gravitational Attraction


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