

On the Motion of All Photons Within a Single Absolute Inertial Reference FrameAll photons move on individual vectors through inertial space at exactly C. From this undisputed experimental fact, we can conclude that all photons move within the same inertial reference frame. This assumption leads to the conclusion that each photon is a material body with an intrinsic mass (m=p/c) and dimension (=h/mc) within this frame of absolute photon rest. Any motion of a photon’s source, relative to rest, has no effect on the photon’s velocity, but transforms its intrinsic mass and wavelength in proportion to the absolute motion of the source. This same transformation occurs between the photon’s intrinsic momentum at c and its observed momentum of . The Doppler effect allows the accurate measurement of any difference in velocity along a vector between source and observer, but it prevents any measurement of the three intrinsic inertial vectors of source, observer, and photon. To verify the existence of this elusive preferred reference frame, and to measure its position, the observer must look to the results of the MichelsonMorley experiment, the Uhuru pulsar observations and the PoundRebka measurements. Einstein’s theory of special relativity is derived from the following two postulates. First PostulateThe laws of nature are the same in all inertial reference frames.Second PostulateThe velocity of light in free space is always a constant C, irrespective of the motion of the source or receiver.Both of these postulates are vague, contradictory, and the elements within them are poorly defined. The results of many experiments performed since these postulates were first proposed in 1905 demand that their wording be altered and their elements to be more carefully defined in order to more accurately reflect reality. Revised First PostulateThe laws of nature are measured by observers to have the same values within all inertial reference frames.The laws of nature are changed by changes in motion, but the parameters of these laws are altered in such a way that the measurement process usually does not permit the observer to detect the changes. If an expected transformation cannot be detected by a measurement, it does not necessarily follow that no transformation has occurred. At rest, a light bulb emits photons of the same wavelength in all directions, but when in motion, it emits photons of many different wavelengths depending on their alignment with the light bulb’s vector of motion through photon rest. Even though the emission spectrum of the light bulb is changed by each change in its motion through photon space, the Doppler effect prevents the observer within the light bulb’s reference frame from detecting any of these changes in wavelength. An observer at rest or in any other inertial reference frame can use the Doppler effect to measure the difference in motion between the two reference systems. However, the Doppler effect prevents the measurement of the absolute motion of either. Revised Second PostulateAll photons move at the constant velocity of C_{o} within the same absolute inertial reference frame of photon rest. Within all other reference frames all photons move at C_{o}±V.Within the reference frame of the solar system, which moves at approximately 370 km/sec relative to photon rest (CBR), photons never move at Co relative to an observer. However, the nature of the Doppler shifts produced at both source and observer causes an observer to measure the velocity of the photons to be C in most experiments. However, a synthesis of several different types of experiments allows us to determine the true nature of photon motion by the process of logical reasoning. Before the nature of photons and their interaction with atoms can be established, a third postulate is needed to define the condition of the atoms forming both source and observer. Third PostulatePhoton rest is the absolute position of rest for all matter. Any acceleration relative to this frame increases a body’s mass and any deceleration relative to this frame decreases a body’s mass according to the formula E = MC^{2}. The accelerometer can accurately measure any change in motion but cannot differenciate between acceleration and deceleration.This increase in mass causes an atom to slow its physical processes because as its moment of inertia (I = MR^{2}) increases, its angular velocity (w = V/R) decreases in order to conserve angular momentum (Iw). This decrease in the atom’s rotational velocity slows the cyclical motion by which we measure inertial time and thus slows the rate at which inertial clocks record time. This Lorentz transformation has the opposite effect on the rate at which gravitational clocks record the passage of time. As the mass of a body increases, the acceleration of gravity at its surface increases at a proportionate rate and in turn decreases the period of a clock pendulum by the square root of the mass increase. (P = 2L/g) The motion of a photon’s source changes its intrinsic mass and wavelength and their measured values are also changed by the observer’s absolute motion. The nature of a body’s absolute motion is a combination of its vectored motion and its nonvectored motion. For a photon the balance is always perfect between the energy of its vectored motion and the energy of its nonvectored motion. The total energy of a photon within the photon rest frame is the sum of four individual motion components. The photon is composed of two bodies of equal mass; the matter body and the antimatter body. These bodies move along the same vector at C, each with a kinetic energy (vectored energy) of: Each body also spins in opposite directions at C , with a rotational kinetic energy (nonvectored energy). This equation converts to so that a photon observed in the photon rest frame has a total energy of: This formula does not apply to any reference frame except for photon rest. When a photon is measured in any other reference frame, the ratio between these two energies becomes unbalanced. This is because change in the relative velocity between photon and observer changes the photon’s vectored energy by a different amount than it changes its nonvectored energy. The photon’s vectored energy is a function of the direction or vector between the photon’s motion and the motion of the observer. The vectored energy of absorption is increased when the observer and photon are moving in the opposite direction at C+V and decreased when they are moving in the same direction at a relative velocity of CV. By contrast, the photon’s nonvectored absorption energy is a function of the observer’s absolute motion and its value is not affected by the direction or vector of that motion. For all reference frames other than absolute photon rest, the above equation for a photon’s absorption energy becomes: blue shift and red shift Note that the equation for nonvectored energy is the same for both blue and red shifted photons. For an analogy of this situation consider a rifle bullet. When a bullet is fired, the rifling in the barrel causes the bullet to spin. The kinetic energy contained in the bullet’s forward motion is vectored energy and is relative to the motion of the target. The rotational energy of the bullet’s spin is nonvectored energy and is absolute. For example, if we were in a jet plane and could maneuver along side a bullet’s path at the same speed, we could reach out the window and grab the bullet without any transference of kinetic energy but the bullet would still be spinning when we grabbed it and transfer rotational energy to our hand. By contrast, if the plane hit the bullet while traveling at the same speed in the opposite direction the bullet would have four times as much kinetic energy as it had when it left the gun barrel. Next, if we follow the bullet while accelerating to twice its velocity and then measure the energy of its impact, it will be the same as its muzzle energy. However, the rotational energy (nonvectored energy) inherent in the bullet’s spin would have the same value in all three of these reference frames. It is interesting to note that in the third example the vectored energy supplied to the bullet by the gunpowder is negative in that it reduces the impact between bullet and plane, while the nonvectored spin energy supplied by the gunpowder is positive and adds to the impact energy. For ordinary bullets, the kinetic energy is much greater than the rotational energy. However, imagine a special kind of rifle that spins the bullet so fast that the rotational energy of the bullet’s spin is exactly the same as the kinetic energy of its muzzle velocity so that the bullet’s total energy is (E = MV^{2}). The photon is just such a bullet. For large velocities a distinction must be made between a photon’s absorption energy and its measured energy . This is because of the Lorentz transformation produced by the observer’s motion. For a moving observer, energy of a photon’s absorption will always be measured to be greater than its actual value because of the combination of the observer’s increased mass and slowed clocks. The formula for this energy transformation is: 

A photon’s measured energy (_{M}E) is equal to its absorption energy (_{A}E) divided by the Square root of one minus the velocity (V) squared divided by the speed of light (C) squared.  
These effects are illustrated in the following thought experiments. In this drawing, a plane is traveling at 1/3 C with a cesium clock at the center of the plane. This clock ticks at a rate of 9,192,631,770 cycles per second and controls a light bulb that emits photons in all directions on every other tick of the clock. Each time a group of photons is emitted, the clock’s minute hand moves one notch. In the Earth’s inertial frame, these photons have a wavelength of 3.26 cm, an energy of 6.09 x 10^{24} joule, a mass of 6.78x10^{41} kilogram, and a momentum of 2.03 x 10^{32}. To simplify our calculations we will give each of these parameters a value of one. The yellow and black grid represents the photon rest frame. The speed of light is one black square per tick and the plane moves to the left at one yellow square per tick. To simplify the dynamics of this experiment we will assume the Earth to be at rest within the photon rest frame even though we know it to be moving toward the constellation Leo at approximately 370 km/sec. Four observers located at different positions on the earth measure photons emitted from the plane at different angles. The photons emitted in the direction of the plane’s forward motion are blue shifted to a wavelength of .707. The photons emitted toward the back of the plane are red shifted to a wavelength of 1.414. The photons emitted at right angles to the plane’s motion are slightly red shifted to a wavelength of 1.06 caused not directly by the plane’s motion but by the Lorentz transformation which slows the physical processes producing the photons and causes them to have longer wavelengths. This transverse Doppler shift is the same in all directions and is figured into the previously mentioned blue and red Doppler shifts. The fourth observer measures photons emitted at about 100^{o} from the plane’s vector of motion to have a wavelengths of one. These photons are blue shifted from their emission wavelength of 1.06 to their rest emission wavelength by their small forward motion that also keeps them in a straight line that appears to move sideways at the same velocity as the plane.  
In this drawing, the observers have boarded the plane, and have taken up positions at the nose, tail and at the tip of each wing. Each has an identical cesium clock that has been synchronized to with the clock at the center.
Observer #1 measures the blue shifted photons with a wavelength of .707 and an energy of 1.414 to have a wavelength of one and an energy of one. This is because they are red shifted by his motion away from them and he measures their wavelengths to be longer than they really are. Observer #2 measures the red shifted photons also to have wavelengths and energies of one, because they are blue shifted by his motion towards them, and they appear to be shorter than their actual wavelengths. Observer #3 measures the transverse Doppler shifted photons with wavelengths of 1.06 and energies of .94281 to also have wavelengths and energies of one. This is because the clock he uses in the measurement of the of the photons has been slowed by the Lorentz transformation to one tick for every 1.06 tick on Earth. Since the observer has no motion on the photon’s vector no direct Doppler shift is contained in this measurement. However, because his telescope is moving on a perpendicular vector it must be tilted 10^{o} to absorb them and thus cause him to see them coming from that direction. Observer #4 measures the photons that have been blue shifted to their Earth wavelength of one. He measures their wavelengths to be one, but only because his motion away from them produces a red shift of 1.06 that is equal to his slowed clock, so he measures the time necessary to absorb the photon as one tick. Since he is moving away from the photon while absorbing it, it actually takes 1.06 earth ticks to complete the absorption process. Both observers #3 and #4 perceive a shift of 10^{o} in the vectors of the photons from their actual paths. This shift makes it appear that they are coming from the direction of where the source is now, rather than from where the source was when the photons were emitted. Each photon has two distinct energies. When the observers measure a photon’s energy, they obtain the sum of the photon’s vectored energy and nonvectored energy, which, except for observer #3 do not have equal values in their moving reference frame. The vectored energy of the photons measured by observer #1 has a value of twice that of the photon’s nonvectored energy. By contrast, the vectored energy of the photons measured by observer #2 has a value of only half that of the photon’s nonvectored energy. The absorption energy of the photons measured by all four observers is .94281 but the Lorentz transformation causes them to perceive their energies as one. The speed of light is not the same for all observers. Next the observers measure the velocity at which the photons travel relative to them and find that each obtains a different value for the speed of light. At first they just measure the rate at which they receive the photons and all find that the photons arrive at every other tick of their clocks just as they were emitted. This result initially led them to believe that the speed of light was the same for each but then, they decided to turn off the light and then set the center clock to start emitting photons again at 6:00. Each observer then counts how many photons they receive after twenty ticks of their clocks at 6:10. The drawing shows the moment of the twentieth tick when the tenth set of photons is emitted and each clock strikes 6:10. At this point in time, observer #2 receives the sixth of the ten photons while observer #1 only receives the first photon. Thus, observer #2 measures the speed of light to be 1.333C and observer #1 measures it to be .667C. 

In this thought experiment to demonstrate the photon dynamics of the Michelson interferometer and the MichelsonMorely experiment, the red shifted photons from the light at the nose of the plane, move through the photon rest at C but move at 1.333C relative to the plane. When they strike the silvered mirror, half are reflected to the mirror on the wing and the other half pass through to the mirror at the tail. (Actually, individual photons do not reflect off the mirror or pass through it. They are all absorbed by the atoms at the mirror’s surface and then their energy but not their mass passes through the glass to the other surface in a coherent shock wave. Here the shock wave either reflects back to the first surface or joins with a single atom to form an identical photon that is emitted from the mirror’s surface.) Upon exiting the mirror, the red photons continue to move at 1.333C towards the tail, but the photons reflected towards the wing mirror are blue shifted to their green Earth wavelength by the 100^{o} emission angle that is necessary so the photons can hit the moving wing mirror. These photons move at C through photon rest but only move at .94381C relative to the plane. The red photons reflecting off the tail mirror are shifted to blue photons that only move at 2/3C relative to the plane. Then when they are reflected toward the observer, they are red shifted to the green earth wavelength and move at .94281C relative to the plane. The observer on the wing sees photons from a single light flash arrive at exactly the same time, even though they have taken three different paths and move at three different velocities relative to the plane.  
Even though the photons travel on two different paths of equal length and at three different velocities, their average velocit1es between source and observer are exactly the same and all photons arrive at the observer at the same time. This same situation is still true when the aparatus is turned 90^{o} as in the above drawing or also for any other angle. Photons always travel at C relative to photon rest and travel at C±V relative to moving observers. The blue photons measured by the observer are Doppler shifted by his motion away from them and thus appear to be green photons.  
Binary Pulsar Observations 



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